Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women today (after lung cancer) and is the most common cancer among women, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 1.2 million people will be diagnosed with breast cancer this year worldwide. The American Cancer Society estimated that in 2005 approximately 211,240 women in the United States were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer (Stages I-IV). The chance of developing invasive breast cancer during a womans lifetime is approximately 1 in 7 (13.4%). Another 58,490 women will be diagnosed with in situ breast cancer, a very early form of the disease. Though much less common, breast cancer also occurs in men. An estimated 1,690 cases were diagnosed in men in 2005. This year alone, the National Institutes of Health, the Centers of Disease Control (CDC), and the Department of Defense will collectively spend more than $850 million on breast cancer research. Today the literature of breast imaging technologies is clouded with uncertainty. There is no perfect method to tell which technique performs better or the best. It is also not clear how well the new progressing technologies are going to play a role in early breast cancer detection due partly because the emerging technologies have not established a clear strategy to achieve superior instrumentation for screening and diagnosis and for improving the sensitivity and specificity of the imaging or computer-aided diagnosis systems.
This book is the first of its kind to address the issues on cutting edge emerging technologies for breast imaging and mammography. The book covers all facets of nature to image the breast, may it be light (optical), sound (ultrasound), magnetism, attenuation, microwave, electrical impedance, fusion of these modalities, and some of the very hot topics on Computer Aided Detection. The novelty of this book is due to the contributions of pioneers around the world. This book offers a very comprehensive and up-to-date perspective on the state of breast cancer screening instrumentation, diagnosis, and therapy and recommends steps for developing the most reliable breast cancer detection and therapeutic methods possible. This volume, for the first time, covers numerous topics on how to attack breast cancer from almost all different angles of medical imaging modalities such as X-ray, CT, MR, PET, SPECT, nuclear, ultrasound, microwave, optical, electrical impedance, thermal, infrared, and its fusion. Another novelty of this book is modeling breast cancer detection, diagnosis, and therapy in 3-D. The book begins with highlights on different kinds of breast cancer and its pathology and then introduces the engineers, scientists, innovators, and strategists to put their algorithms and designs for solving the number one killer problem in womens health imaging.
The book is divided into six parts: Part-I is dedicated to X-ray mammography and its applications, including modeling X-ray spectra, phase-contrast, and stereoscopic mammography. Part-II is dedicated to 3-D breast imaging and tomosynthesis, one of the most cutting-edge topics from pioneers. Part-III is dedicated to breast imaging using ultrasound and its applications. This involves detection, elastography, vibro-acoustography, breast biopsy, and breast cancer therapy using HIFU. Part-IV concentrates on some emerging techniques such as optical, microwave, electrical impedance tomography, nuclear, and infrared and thermal imaging techniques. Part-V is dedicated to some of the advanced computer-aided detection techniques applied to architectural distortion. Finally, the book concludes, in Part-VI, on the fusion of various modalities and some future predictions in the breast imaging area.